Osteosarcoma is also called bone cancer. It is the most terrible disease all around the world. It mainly affects children because it develops from osteoblasts. It caused by the genetic factors. Genetic factors change immature bone cells into cancer cells. Around the knee joint and close to the shoulder are the main sites of osteosarcoma. Swelling just above or below knee joint/ upper arm/ near shoulder, painful & limited movements of joint, limping gait in case of leg swelling, signs of incontinence of bladder/ bowel in case of pelvic or spinal osteosarcoma and backache are the main symptoms of osteosarcoma.
Osteosarcoma is of 2 types 1. Central or lower grade Osteosarcoma. 2. Surface or high grade Osteosarcoma. Diagnosis of Osteosarcoma can be done through X-ray of bone- Lytic lesion with indistinct margins or ossification in the soft tissue with sunburst pattern. Reactive new bone formation is seen as a periosteal elevation, a sign named as a ‘Codman’s angle’, MRI of involved bone, CT chest, Bone scan, Tru-cut needle biopsy of tumor. Through all this a doctor can be able to examine osteosarcoma.
Osteosarcoma needs to treat at right time. Surgery is one option for its treatment. Surgical treatments for osteosarcoma consist of either amputation or limb-salvage surgery. Limb salvage surgery also preferred. For the metastatic disease in the lungs, surgery is done to do pulmonary metastatecomy. Chemotherapy is another option. Chemotherapy is given before or after surgery. Radiotherapy is the still another option for the treatment of osteosarcoma.